The presentation is based on a book I published last year, Supporting Innovation Through National R&D Programs (publisher IGI Global) in which I give the whole background regarding financial, legal and strategic aspects, the cultural conflict etc. involved in innovation, the role of the different partners including the government in forming and managing these programs and more. In the presentation, to keep it interesting and short, I shall focus on examples from the Israeli system. Discussing different programs aimed at different target "customers" for different purposes, and how different elements in the programs can impact the outcome, or the fit to the needs of the intended "customers". My approach is that of a process and the discipline is more sociology than economy, and the narrative describes the scene of Innovation today in Israel.